And some, unable to bear these things, drop dead” (Harutian 87). The events which unfolded between 1915 and 1917 constitute one of the greatest assaults upon humanity in the history of the world, yet the Armenian Genocide remains under-researched and under-taught in many schools. ( Déconnexion / The Young Turks proposed to the Dashnaktsutyun, by then the leading Armenian political party, that it convince Russian Armenians as well as those in Ottoman lands to fight for the Ottoman Empire. Instead, they suggest that the Armenians were victims of pillaging Kurds who were in the area at the time (Case). While the level of religious freedom and tolerance within the Ottoman and Seljuk Empires had fluctuated over the years, the Young Turks wanted to establish Islamic dominance throughout the region more so than any of the leading groups before them. Those who support this theory site the treatment of conquered and colonized people in the territories of the western powers, which some would argue was actually harsher than the treatment of the Armenians. OFFICE OF THE UN SPECIAL ADVISER ON THE PREVENTION OF GENOCIDE (OSAPG) (n.d.): n. pag. There are now more than twice as many ethnic Armenians worldwide as there were when the Young Turks attempted to annihilate them, which is a testament to the Armenian spirit and resilience (Hartunian XIX). This peaceful coexistence, though, met a swift end in 1915 with the beginning of a systematic slaughter and deportation of Armenians, who at the time were living throughout Turkey and parts of Russia. Armenian Genocide, campaign of deportation and mass killing conducted against the Armenian subjects of the Ottoman Empire by the Young Turk government during World War I (1914–18). Leur objectif était de créer un grand empire, ethniquement homogène, rassemblant tous les peuples turcs de l’Europe à l’Asie centrale. Avertissez-moi par e-mail des nouveaux commentaires. The Armenian people were forged in the fire of genocide, but have passed that test and prevailed with flying colors. Those who were lucky enough to survive had to simply continue walking until, and if, they reached the border and safety. In all, hundreds of thousands of Armenians were killed in massacres between 1894 and 1896, which later came to be known as the Hamidian massacres. History, be it familial, national, or ethnic, defines who one is as a person. “Adolf Hitler, Chancellor of Nazi Germany (1933-45).” Adolf Hitler — Statement on the Armenian Genocide. My gosh…, Without mention Young Turk crypto-Jewish, this assessment is incomplete. C'est le début d'un génocide, le premier du XXe siècle. En 1912, suite à une nouvelle guerre balkanique, l’empire perd tous ses territoires européens hormis ceux qui jouxtent Istanbul. Over time, however, the ambitions of the Young Turks became more militant, less tolerant of non-Turks, and increasingly suspicious of their Armenian subjects, whom they imagined were collaborating with foreign powers. Web. For centuries the great mountain plateau of Eastern Anatolia—in present-day eastern Turkey—was inhabited primarily by Christian Armenians who shared the area with Muslim Kurds. The sultan, a dynastic title given to the traditional ruler of the Ottoman Empire, had given up absolute power in 1908, causing a power vacuum. At the beginning of the 20th century, there were about 2.5 million Armenians living in the Ottoman Empire, mostly concentrated in the six provinces of Eastern Anatolia. Even during the times of Muhammad, religious wars were taking place, as he began conquering and absorbing areas into his domain. The technological developement had skyrocketed around the globe, civilizations that always blamed others for their astrocities without delivering the progress themselves started as long ago as Sumaritans with random sacrifices to their gods for good yeilds (over 10,000 years ago), but this is it folks!!! Les deux peuples vivent en effet sur le même territoire. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Web. “Genocide.” Merriam-Webster. Like many incidents of violence, the Armenian Genocide was not a spontaneous event (although it appeared to be to the international community), nor was it the result of a single action. However, it is important to note that many Islamic religious leaders protested the deportation and execution of the Armenians, and later testified on behalf of the persecuted minority during war crime trials. What word describes Edward Teach, Anne Bonny, and Henry Morgan? In 1908 a small group of Ottoman revolutionaries—the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP), an organization within the broader Young Turks movement—came to power. 11 March, 2017. LOL. Les « Jeunes Turcs » dès leur arrivée au pouvoir, ont eu besoin d’une nouvelle idéologie et ont oscillé entre libéralisme et nationalisme. “What Was behind the Ethnic Cleansing of Armenians?” Al-Monitor. A wealthy ethnic and religious minority was humiliating to the ruling race in Germany, just as the Armenians were to the Turks before the genocide. En 1896, un commando armé arménien occupe et prend en otage le personnel de la Banque Ottomane, la banque nationale où sont notamment stockés les avoirs étrangers. When you have a group of people who believe that a guy who liked to have sex with a little 9 year old girl is the epitome of human achievement this is what you get. A Ukrainian genocide by Hitler was bad too and Native American yet, all I’ve ever said was “those that eat poo stink a mile away” maybe they think “AU DE TOILET” water will cover it up? Ils se sont tournés vers la deuxième, sous la bannière du panturquisme. Very few were this lucky. Ceux-ci refusent de payer, car ils payent déjà un « impôt » aux kurdes locaux, et ne peuvent payer deux fois. N.p., n.d. Additionally, the forcible removal of Armenians from Armenia has had an incredible impact upon the culture. Armenians were killed in all sorts of horrific ways, but the vast majority died during the forced marches, during which the Ottoman military and civilians alike herded Armenians, sometimes entire towns at a time, and simply marched them into the desert without resources and left them there to perish. This has ‘paved’ the path for other genocide’s such as the Jewish Holocaust. This is why i hope the Armenian leadership does not make any concessions to the turks until the genocide is formally recognized and the turks accept full responsibility as the successor state benefiting from the ill gotten gains, decades of denial, and the existing illegal blockade. In Eastern Anatolia Armenians lived intermixed with the dominant Kurdish nomads. Web. Changer ), Vous commentez à l’aide de votre compte Facebook. Humanity must study the past in order to avoid repeating the atrocities committed so many years ago. Germany, just like the Ottoman Turks, was reeling after having suffered a military defeat in World War I, and was attempting to regain lost prestige. 11 March, 2017. That was seen by powerful Young Turks as an act of treachery. Distinguished University Professor of History, University of Michigan. When, in 1894, the Armenians in the Sasun region refused to pay an oppressive tax, Ottoman troops and Kurdish tribesmen killed thousands of Armenians in the region. Framework, Analysis, and Legal Definition Of Genocide. The prominence and influence of the well-educated and cosmopolitan Armenian elite had a drawback, however, in that it became a source of resentment and suspicion among Muslims. Others concede that the Armenians did suffer great losses, but refuse to accept the fact that the atrocities were carried out by the Ottoman Empire and its military. In conclusion, the main causes of the Armenian Genocide were the economic, political, religious, and social situations of the Ottoman Empire at the time, as well as the history of conflict … 11 March, 2017. Le sujet du génocide arménien est compliqué, c'est pourquoi je vais le diviser en deux articles. As time has passed, the manner in which conflicts are carried out has evolved; therefore, history has innumerable variations of combat and harm. Excusez par avance la longueur…L’empire ottoman a toujours été une mosaïque de peuples : en plus des Turcs, il y avait des Kurdes, des Grecs, des Arméniens, des Albanais, des Serbes, des Bulgares, des Assyriens, des Chaldéens, des Juifs, des Lazes, des Circassiens, des Ukrainiens…. D’autres massacres se produisent l’année suivante dans la ville de Zeitoun. N.p., n.d. This takes into account the lack of civil rights available to Armenians, as well as the economic and societal restraints placed upon them. 11 March, 2017. “Home – AGMA.” Home – AGMA. In conclusion, the main causes of the Armenian Genocide were the economic, political, religious, and social situations of the Ottoman Empire at the time, as well as the history of conflict in the region. However, the party quickly split over whether liberal or conservative reform was needed to revitalize the Empire, and the radical conservative wing of the party found itself with uninhibited control thanks to a coup d’etat (Armenian National Institute). 60’s , 70’s? These radical Muslim leaders found the perfect group to send the message in the Armenian population within Turkey, a population accustomed to maltreatment, and an economically successful ethnic and religious minority. Many Turks still claim that there was no crime committed against the Armenians, suggesting that the Armenians “decided their own fate” by openly fighting alongside the Triple Entente during the First World War and against the Ottoman Empire during the Balkan War (Case). Web. Our modern world continues to suffer the consequences of the religious tension and intolerance from generations ago. This reasonably secure lifestyle contrasted greatly with that of “increasingly unruly Muslim tribes, who now constituted a vast, unemployed army” (Harutian XIV). This forces the learner to be incredibly wary of his or her sources, and to always consider whether or not the informer may be knowingly or unknowingly harboring ulterior motives and is allowing these to influence the presentation of material. Young Armenian activists, many of them from Russian Caucasia, sought to protect their compatriots by agitating for an independent state. 33-37. History has shown, it is suicide to make deals and concessions with un-apologetic turks. For several generations in the 18th and 19th centuries, for example, the chief architects of the Ottoman court were in the Armenian Balian family. However, much of the international community, including the United States, does not recognize the “incident” as a genocide. Le génocide arménien. During the year 1895-1896 nearly 30,000 Armenians were killed according to the orders of sultan Abdul Hamid II. It is incredibly difficult to deny that the events did take place; and, the Young Turks had the motive, intent, and ability to carry out such a heinous crime against humanity. Akyol, Mustafa. They are hungry, they are thirsty, they are cold in the night air. During the Balkan War, many Armenians in the eastern reaches of the Empire had, in fact, joined forces with the Balkan uprisers and the Russians, much to the dismay of the Turkish government (Case). In the 19th century Armenians struggled against the perception that they were a foreign element within the Ottoman Empire and that they would eventually betray it to form their own independent state. The Ottoman Empire was the most recent of a long line of invaders to control the Armenian kingdom in 1915; the once powerful kingdom had previously succumbed to Greeks, Romans, Persians, Arabs, Seljuks, Mongols, Tartars, all before falling into Ottoman hands (Hartunian XIV). As previously mentioned, the Armenian population in the Ottoman Empire at the time was quite wealthy, which is not a problem in and of itself, but became an issue because the Turkish population, and the government itself, were far from financially secure. Dans celui-ci je reviendrai sur les causes. The wise course for you, when the time comes, is to leave this country and never return.’ This Turk had spoken the truth. Get kids back-to-school ready with Expedition: Learn! C’est le début d’une grande mésentente entre Turcs et Arméniens. Armenians in the Ottoman Empire fought alongside the Ottomans, while Armenian volunteer units made up of Russian subjects fought on the Russian side. Web. However, the time immediately before the events of 1915 was actually relatively peaceful, as the many groups under Ottoman rule coexisted without conflict. Because local courts and judges often favoured Muslims, Armenians had little recourse when they were the victims of violence or when their land, livestock, or property was taken from them. En 1878, après une nouvelle guerre dans les Balkans, les Serbes obtiennent l’autonomie et les Bulgares une quasi indépendance, suite au soutien des Russes. a bit confused about how you can say that the years before the genocide were peaceful even though in 1894 there was a massacre of the Armenian people. Les grandes communautés chrétiennes ont obtenus leur indépendance, soutenues par les Européens. The Armenian populations in Tiflis and Baku controlled the majority of the local wealth—wealth which was desperately needed both by the Islamic civilians of the area, as well as the Young Turk government. The Young Turks promoted this fear and dislike of outsiders, in particular of Armenians, through the use of their propagandist newspaper Harb Mecuasi, or “War Magazine” (Dadrian, 220). Peu après, des mouvements révolutionnaires arméniens commencent à apparaitre, ainsi que des partis politiques qui demandent indépendance ou autonomie. Increasingly authoritarian, the Young Turks consolidated power and sidelined their more liberal opponents, and in January 1913 the most militant members of the party, Enver Paşa and Talat Paşa, came to power in a coup d’état. They formed two revolutionary parties called Hënchak (“Bell”) and Dashnaktsutyun (“Federation”) in 1887 and 1890. The Turkish government has resisted calls to recognize it as such, contending that, although atrocities took place, there was no official policy of extermination implemented against the Armenian people as a group. Our Armenian leaders told us to be peaceful and the turks would leave us alone…..and unfortunately we followed their advice. In 1914 the European powers imposed a major reform on the Ottomans that required supervision by inspectors in the east. To make matters worse, the first several years of World War I had been a complete disaster for the Ottoman Empire, and the new Young Turk government was running out of the funds needed to wage war. Life for Armenian villagers and townspeople in the Ottoman Empire was difficult and unpredictable, and they often received harsh treatment from the dominant Kurdish nomads. Pour consolider son pouvoir, le sult… The recounting of the Armenian Genocide suggests that there is no “absolute truth” within history, and that bias, both conscious and unconscious, clouds judgement and alters the recitations of events. Armenians charge that the campaign was a deliberate attempt to destroy the Armenian people and, thus, an act of genocide. New York: Berghahn, 2008. One of the most devastating types of conflict and assault upon a culture is genocide. 11 March, 2017. Les Arméniens, très nombreux dans l’empire Russe qui ne se cache pas de vouloir devenir le protecteur de cette minorité, persistent à demander un soutien international tant que les Ottomans ne tiennent pas leurs engagements promis depuis les réformes du Tanzimat, et ce à la veille de la guerre qui oppose les deux empire eurasiatiques. However, it is important to understand that there are some historians who paint a different picture. Excusez par avance la longueur...L'empire ottoman a toujours été une mosaïque de peuples : en plus des Turcs, il y avait des Kurdes, des Grecs, des Arméniens, des Albanais, des Serbes, des… Le Sultan Abdul Hamid II va réprimer très durement ces mouvements dès qu’ils vont prendre une importance populaire. Armenians welcomed the restoration of the Ottoman constitution, and the promise of elections led Armenians and other non-Turks within the empire to cooperate with the new political order. Furthermore, Armenia was not simply a Christian nation, but in the 4th century A.D., became the first nation ever to accept Christianity as the official religion of the state. As a requirement of the IB diploma, students are required to write an “Extended Essay,” a research paper of up to 4,000 words. They cannot freely move their bowels. Tout commence le 24 avril 1915. They have no place to rest. ( Déconnexion / “Two Rights and a Wrong.” Nation, vol. Case, Holly. It is widely accepted that the first several assaults upon the Armenians were carried out by civilians; the government authorities and troops also contributed to the destruction as the persecution blossomed. Fearful Armenians capitalized on the Ottoman defeat to press for reforms, appealing to the European powers to force the Young Turks to accept a degree of autonomy in the Armenian provinces. N.p., 12 April 2015. People must learn to be aware of the sins of the past in order to create a better tomorrow. This radical wing promoted a “Turkey for the Turks” sentiment and created a “xenophobic (fear of those unlike oneself) Turkish nationalism” (Armenian National Institute). In fact, the Armenian minority in Turkey was actually quite economically and culturally prosperous, in spite of the aforementioned disadvantages they faced (Armenian National Institute). Un mouvement de révolte éclate, réprimé par de nombreux massacres. However, even those who adhere to this historical interpretation cannot argue that the Armenians were at any point, or on any level, considered the equal of the Turks, and that is a very dangerous thing. What Were the Main Causes of the Armenian Genocide? United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, n.d. Furthermore, the conflict sent hundreds of thousands of Muslim refugees streaming eastward into Anatolia, intensifying conflict between Muslims and Christian peasants over land. These incredibly interconnected factors included the racial, political, economic, and religious situations, as well as the history of the region, in particular the Ottoman Empire, at the turn of the 20th century. ( Déconnexion / No longer could the Turk be a friend to the Armenian, or the Armenian a friend to the Turk” (Hartunian 1). Changer ). Neither one gained wide support among Armenians in Eastern Anatolia, who largely remained loyal and hoped instead that sympathizers in Christian Europe would pressure the Ottoman Empire to implement new reforms and protections for Armenians. Hartunian, Abraham H. Neither to Laugh nor to Weep: An Odyssey of Faith: A Memoir of the Armenian Genocide. The effects of this horrific event can be seen throughout history, and are still felt today. In the areas where Ottoman and Russian troops faced each other, there were massacres of both Christians and Muslims. Belmont, Mass. Voir la version abrégée. Antipathy toward Christians increased when the Ottoman Empire suffered a humiliating defeat in the First Balkan War (1912–13), resulting in the loss of nearly all its remaining territory in Europe. “Armenian National Institute.” Armenian National Institute. That being said, the belief that the events of 1915 through 1917 were in fact genocidal in nature is held widely throughout the international community among scholars. In fact, the Ottoman Empire was referred to at the time as the “Sick Man” in Europe, due in no small part to the fact that many of the minority groups within the Empire, such as the Greeks, had begun uprisings; some had even gained independence during the first Balkan War. Aside from the financial struggles in the war, the fighting itself was going poorly, and the Armenians caught the blame for this as well. The great majority of Armenians were poor peasants, but a few found success as merchants and artisans. To fully illustrate just how similar these two crimes against humanity were, in a 1939 statement, Adolf Hitler himself illustrates his use of the Turkish blueprint to justify his actions in Poland, saying “Who, after all, speaks today of the annihilation of the Armenians?” Perhaps, if people had in fact remembered the Armenian Genocide, this second tragedy may have been avoided. Merriam-Webster, n.d. The two empires had always viewed themselves as guardians of the Islamic faith, and believed it was their role to spread the Islamic faith throughout their territories. C’est dans ce contexte de méfiance mutuelle, et de guerre, qu’aura lieu en 1915 le premier génocide du 20ème siècle, le génocide arménien. Hitler followed the Young Turks blueprint almost exactly, dehumanizing and scapegoating an economically successful racial and religious minority during a time of crisis. To back up this claim, and to prevent any resistance to the impending assault, the Turkish government disarmed all of the Armenians in the Ottoman Empire. Truth is that Anatolia, North Africa, and Syria once enlightened centers of Christendom have all been brought to both physical and spiritual poverty by Mohammedanism.
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